If custom settings.xml are used for a job in such a way that parent POMs are not accessible without considering the full environment of model building (details TBD), it can happen that the Maven build itself succeeds yet MavenFingerprinter.recordParents fails to find parent POMs and so aborts the build. The root problem is the use of MavenProject.getParent, which is very problematic and in fact can throw an undocumented exception as MNG-5075 notes.
Any such exception should be caught, perhaps logged, and fingerprinting should proceed.
Further, the model should be computed in such a way that the parent can be resolved to begin with. This may mean dropping usages of getParent.