Via the GUI, I can choose the Option "Prepare SonarQube Scanner Environment" (see the attached screenshot). I could not find this option in the Job DSL Plugin (searched the API and the source code via grep). That is why I can not generate my Jobs with this option selected automatically.
Without this option, I can not start the Maven SonarQube goal, because the SonarQube environment variables are missing.
My current workaround is to also define the SonarQube environment variables as global environment variables. Then I can also use them in my generated jobs.